華僑網 特稿评论 “大融合”的時代,“亞洲的事情要靠亞洲人民來辦”

“大融合”的時代,“亞洲的事情要靠亞洲人民來辦”

【導讀】 11月2日,由清華大學戰略與安全研究中心中國論壇參與主辦的首屆“思想亞洲THINK ASIA”智庫論壇在新加坡舉辦。論壇匯聚中、新、印、泰、日、韓等亞洲國家的眾多學者,圍繞亞洲發展、經濟前景、安全形勢、風險管理、創新機制等熱點問題展開討論。對外經濟貿易大學以色列分校副校長、中國論壇特約專家龔炯受邀出席並發表講話。

11月11日,龔炯在《南華早報》發表評論文章“An Asia of the Asians, by the Asians, for the Asians”( 一個亞洲人有、亞洲人治和亞洲人享的亞洲)

文章認為,“亞洲人的亞洲”是一個集體願景,是多樣性的體現,是一個正在崛起的地區發出呼聲:亞洲的命運,亞洲的和平繁榮和亞洲人的幸福,應由亞洲人民來決定。

是時候讓我們來談一下這個簡單、公正的願景了,雖然它早該被實現,但現在看來還需要幾十年的時間。在1955年由29個新獨立的亞非國家代表出席的萬隆會議上,時任印尼總統蘇加諾發表了那篇著名的演講,其中一段說到:“亞、非各國領導人可以在自己的國家裡匯聚一堂,討論和審議共同關心的話題,這是世界歷史的一個新起點。僅僅在幾十年前,我們各國人民的代表還經常需要前往其他國家甚至其他大陸,才能進行商談。”

這一聲明標誌著一段漫長旅程的開始,延續到今天我們所討論的這一願景——一個屬於亞洲人民、來自亞洲人民、為了亞洲人民的亞洲。亞洲擁有全世界 60% 的人口,按國內生產總值和購買力平價計算,都是世界上最大的大陸經濟體。因此,“亞洲人的亞洲”這個願景是唯一需要被考慮的,這也是月初在新加坡舉行的“思想亞洲”智庫論壇上所討論的主題。

在2014年第四次亞信峰會(CICA)上,中國國家主席習近平提出,“亞洲的事情要靠亞洲人民來辦”。當時,西方輿論將其攻擊為中國版的門羅主義。

2014年,中國國家主席習近平在第四次亞信峰會上發言(圖源:紐約時報)

明年是美國總統門羅於1823年在國會發表演講的100週年,在那篇演講中,他警告歐洲列強不要干涉西半球的事務。很明顯,門羅主義植根於當時世界列強對西半球殖民地領土的爭奪。

以甘蔗、咖啡種植園、奴隸貿易和對北美原住民的種族滅絕為代表的殖民主義,正是蘇加諾組織萬隆會議(反殖民)的主因。在殖民時代,除泰國等極少數國家外,整個亞洲都是殖民化的受害者。將 “亞洲人的亞洲 “這一願景等同於門羅主義,是對我們決定自己命運的願望的最大侮辱。

1955年,萬隆會議在印度尼西亞舉行,亞非代表首次在無殖民國參與的前提下召開大型國際會議(圖源:Vietnam Full Disclosure)

與門羅主義源自單一國家不同,“亞洲人的亞洲”是亞洲人民的集體發聲,她代表著歷史、文化、宗教信仰以及政治和社會制度的多樣性。這是一項多邊倡議,不是為一個國家的國家利益服務,而是為所有亞洲國家的共同利益服務。

與門羅主義以單一超級大國崛起為背景不同,“亞洲人的亞洲”之願景,關注整個地區的崛起,包括中、日、韓的崛起,包括印度和巴基斯坦的崛起,包括海灣國家的崛起,包括中南半島的崛起,以及整個東南亞的崛起。

與門羅主義關於霸權野心和地緣政治議程的本質不同,“亞洲人的亞洲”之願景,是促進亞洲各國人民的和平、安全和經濟繁榮。我們沒有興趣在其他國家尋求勢力範圍;我們只想與鄰國和平、愉快地相處。

1996 年,塞繆爾·亨廷頓創造了“大分流(Great Divergence)”一詞,後來被彭慕蘭(Kenneth Pomeranz)推廣開來,它激發了人們對世界經濟史的大膽新主張,挑戰了歐洲中心論的正統史觀。 “大分流”認為,直到1800年,中國的長江三角洲地區和亞洲其他地區,包括莫臥兒印度、德川日本和奧斯曼帝國,都與英國和荷蘭這兩個歐洲最富裕的地區一樣發達。然而,隨著歐洲克服前現代增長的限制,歐洲和亞洲出現了分流,歐洲拔得頭籌,以英國工業革命為高潮,而亞洲則停滯不前,落在後面。

今天,“大分流”正在逆轉為我認為的“大融合”。世界經濟中心正在向亞洲轉移。從中國沿海城市的機器人工廠到沙特阿拉伯的沙漠油田,從日本和韓國的人工智能研究實驗室到新加坡的醫療中心,從歐亞腹地的溫帶草原到泰國和菲律賓的水稻田,亞洲回來了。現在,是時候開始“思想亞洲”了。

作者:龔炯 (對外經濟貿易大學以色列分校副校長)

核譯:中國論壇韓樺、許馨勻

原文:

An Asia of the Asians, by the Asians, for the Asians

This is the time for a simple and just vision, long overdue but which has still taken decades. In his famous speech at the 1955 Bandung conference attended by representatives from 29 newly independent Asian and African countries, then Indonesian president Sukarno said:

“It is a new departure in the history of the world that leaders of Asian and African peoples can meet together in their own countries to discuss and deliberate upon matters of common concern. Only a few decades ago it was frequently necessary to travel to other countries and even other continents before the spokesmen of our peoples could confer.”

That statement marked the beginning of a long journey that led to today’s vision of an Asia of Asians, by Asians and for Asians. With 60 per cent of the world’s population, Asia is the world’s largest continental economy by nominal gross domestic product and purchasing power parity – there is no reason to think of Asia other than by the “Asia by Asians” vision, or the visions put forth at the Think Asia Forum held last week in Singapore.

At the fourth Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in 2014, China’s President Xi Jinping said that “it is for the people of Asia to run the affairs of Asia”. At the time, a wave of propaganda attack from the West labelled it China’s version of the Monroe Doctrine.

Next year will be the 100th anniversary of US president James Monroe’s 1823 speech to Congress in which he warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western hemisphere. It is clear the Monroe Doctrine was rooted in a fight among world powers at the time over colonial territories in the Western hemisphere.

Colonialism, as represented by its history of sugar plantations, coffee plantations, slave trade and the genocide of the indigenous peoples of North America, is the very reason Sukarno organised the Bandung conference.

During the colonial era, Asia, barring very few countries such as Thailand, fell victim to colonisation. To equate the “Asia by Asians” vision to the Monroe Doctrine is the ultimate insult to our desire to determine our fate.

Unlike the Monroe Doctrine, which emanates from the capital of a single country, “Asia by Asians” is a collective statement from Asian peoples, representing a diversity of histories, cultures, religious beliefs, and political and social systems. It is a multilateral initiative, not serving the national interest of one country, but the common interest of all Asian countries.

Unlike the Monroe Doctrine, our vision is not set against the backdrop of the rise of a single superpower, but is about the rise of the entire region, including the rise of China, Japan and South Korea, the rise of India and Pakistan, the rise of the Gulf states, the rise of the Indochina region, and the rise of the entire Southeast Asia.

Unlike the Monroe Doctrine, which is inherently about hegemonic ambitions and a geopolitical agenda, our vision promotes peace, security and economic prosperity among all peoples in Asia. We have no interest in seeking a sphere of influence in other countries; we merely want to live peacefully and happily with each other as neighbours.

In 1996, Samuel Huntington coined the term, the “Great Divergence”, later popularised by Kenneth Pomeranz, which inspired an audacious view of the world’s economic history and challenged the Eurocentric orthodoxy. It says that as late as 1800, China’s Yangzi delta region and other parts of Asia including Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan and the Ottoman Empire were as developed as Britain and Holland, the two richest parts of Europe.

Europe and Asia diverged, however, as Europe overcame premodern growth constraints to pull ahead, with the industrial revolution in Britain as its climax, while Asia stagnated and fell behind.

Today, the great divergence is reversing into what I call the “Great Convergence”. The world’s economic epicentre is shifting back to Asia. From the robotised factories in China’s coastal cities to the desert oilfields in Saudi Arabia, from the artificial intelligence research labs in Japan and South Korea to the medical centres in Singapore, from the temperate grasslands in the Eurasian heartland to the rice paddies in Thailand and Philippines, Asia is coming back. It is time to Think Asia.

John Gong is a professor at the University of International Business and Economics and a China Forum expert.

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