華僑網 体坛快报 是什么引起了下腰痛?(一)

是什么引起了下腰痛?(一)

Posted on October 14, 2016 by Dr. Aaron Horschig

我有个很大的毛病就是看不惯医生或者一些医疗实习生不怎么花时间给解释基础的解剖结构和他们伤病产生的原因(致病机制)。今天我将简短的介绍一些腰部的解剖结构和一些深蹲中常见的的运动损伤。

脊柱

腰椎并不只是一堆骨头,是由轻微弯曲的小骨头-椎骨构成,每个椎骨中间由椎间盘分隔开来,椎间盘给运动的椎骨提供了缓冲(像一个空气包),脊柱上的椎骨通过背后的小关节突关节连接起来,这些关节允许脊柱进行屈伸和旋转,整体上,整个脊柱被一些不同的组织(肌肉,椎间盘,关节囊和筋膜)连接在一起。

脊柱腰部的结构,椎骨和椎间盘
脊柱腰部及结构整体观

受伤机制

对于“什么导致了下腰痛”这样的问题,最简单的回答就是腰椎结构上过度的压力和拉力导致了疼痛。对于力量型运动员来说,因为以下三件事导致这些压力变成了细微损伤累积的原因。

1、不合理的运动模式和技术

2、过度的负荷(对腰椎过大的压力)

3、不合理的训练周期或计划

身体的每一部分(从骨头到关节到跨过它们分布的肌肉)在受伤和撕裂之前都有个承受负荷的上限值。如果运动员可以在临界点的边缘却不超过临界点进行训练,就可以在提高力量和运动表现方面有很大进步,然而如果超过了临界点,疼痛和损伤便接踵而至。

过度负荷的表现

当我们走了一天或者是在锻炼的时举起负重,当脊柱处于中立位时是最高效的,中立位的脊柱可以承受很高的负荷,但是如果脊柱在承受负荷时持续的脱离中立位,脊柱就会发生细小的损伤(比如在硬拉的时候腰背过度屈曲,深蹲的时候过度的”臀部眨眼“),脊柱在承受过度负荷或压力的时候也会产生细小的损伤,每个人脊柱的承受极限是不一样的,脊柱上一点点细微损伤最终都会触发临界值导致疼痛和无法承受负荷。

脊柱中立位

在疼痛出现在身体上会有个特殊时间点,对于大多数人来说,损伤是个长期积累的结果,这意味着虽然你在弯腰系鞋带或者完成最后一个抓举,损伤都会在那个特殊的点发生。

后续持续不定时更新

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原文链接:What Causes Low Back Pain?


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